Systemic Racism: Then and Now

“Throughout American history, African Americans have repeatedly been controlled through systems of racial and social control that appear to die, but then are reborn in new form, tailored to the needs and constraints of the time.” – Michelle Alexander, civil rights lawyer, advocate, and author of The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness


  1. Convict Leasing – Equal Justice Initiative 
  2. We Need to Talk About and Injustice – Bryan Stevenson, TED TalkMass Incarceration Visualized – The Atlantic on YouTube 
  3. Interactive Redlining Map Zooms In On America’s History Of Discrimination – NPR 
  4. Wells Fargo Bank Agrees to Pay $1.2 Billion for Improper Mortgage Lending Practices – U.S. Department of Justice 
  5. The ‘Father of Modern Gynecology’ Performed Shocking Experiments on Slaves – 
  6. Implicit Bias and Racial Disparities in Health Care – American Bar Association 
  7. The Slave Economy Article – Khan Academy 
  8. NetflixExplained “The Racial Wealth Gap”
  9. Beginnings of Black Education – Virginia Museum of History & Culture 
  10. Racial disparities in school-based disciplinary actions are associated with county-level rates of racial bias – research article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
  11. One Person, No Vote – Carol Anderson 
  12. “I Refuse Not to Be Heard:” Georgia in Uproar Over Voting Meltdown 
  13. Police brutality in the United States – 
  14. How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody – New York Times; Here’s What You Need to Know About Breonna Taylor’s Death; Papoose Tribute – YouTube 
  15. 13th documentary – Netflix 
  16. The War on Drugs That Wasn’t: Wasted Whiteness, “Dirty Doctors,” and Race in Media Coverage of Prescription Opioid Misuse – NCBI, PMC